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Report Title

A428 Caxton to Hardwick Improvements: Intrusive Archaeological Field Evaluation

Publisher and Publication Year

Albion Archaeology - 2005

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Summary

Non-Technical Summary Following receipt of an invitation to tender from CgMs Consulting (CgMs 2004); Albion Archaeology was commissioned in September 2004 by Edmund Nuttall Capita - Symonds to undertake this archaeological evaluation on land within the corridor of the A428 Caxton to Hardwick Improvement Scheme in Cambridgeshire. Albion's Project Design stipulated a strategy for the implementation of a programme of archaeological works within the road improvement corridor. It outlined a four-staged approach to the evaluation: · Stage I ­ Fieldwalking survey (non-intrusive evaluation) · Stage II ­ Geophysical survey (non-intrusive evaluation) · Stage III ­ Trial trenching (intrusive evaluation) · Stage IV - Appraisal of the results of the archaeological field evaluation The results of the non-intrusive evaluation (Stages I and II) have been fully described elsewhere (Albion Archaeology 2004). In summary, these stages were used to define Areas of Archaeological evidence (AAE) which have been targeted during the intrusive evaluation (Stage III). The archaeological potential of `blank' areas has been targeted using arrayed trenches. The intrusive evaluation was completed between June and July 2005. As a result, ten AAE have been identified as worthy of further consideration during the formulation of a mitigation strategy to be undertaken in advance of construction work. Seven of the AAE lie on land which had been identified as having archaeological potential during the non-intrusive evaluation. Two AAE were identified on land which had not previously shown any signs of having archaeological potential. One AAE lies on land occupied by the existing A428; this was not subject to any evaluative work, although its potential is briefly discussed within this document. The Areas of Archaeological Significance are as follows: AAE 1 ­ Caxton Gibbett (Area A, Field 2). Undated Field system. One ditch contained Roman pottery sherds. AAE 2 ­ Land west of Bourn Airfield (Wessex Evaluation, Fields 10 and 11). Iron Age enclosure and associated pit. AAE 3 ­ Bourn Airfield (Area C, Field 12). Ditches containing Roman pottery sherds. AAE 4 ­ Land west of Childerley Gate (Area D, Field 14). Post-medieval moat. AAE 5 - Land east of Childerley Gate (Area D, Field 16). Roman enclosures, associated pits and ditches. AAE 6 ­ Land south-west of Scotland Farm (Area D, Field 17). Flint bearing colluvium. AAE 7­ Land south of Scotland Farm (Area D, Field 18). Iron Age enclosures and associated remains. AAE 8 ­ Land north-west of Hardwick (Area E, Field 19). Late Bronze Age/ early Iron Age pit containing burnt deposit. AAE 9 - Land north of Hardwick (Area E, Field 19). Flint bearing colluvium. AAE 10 ­ Land north-east of Bourn Airfield (within the existing A428). Possible route of Roman road, remains of which may be preserved below the 20th century road. Albion Archaeology A428 Caxton to Hardwick Improvement Scheme, Cambridgeshire Report on the Results of Archaeological Field Evaluation 8 1. INTRODUCTION
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4.12 Summary The site contains significant remains from several periods. In particular there is evidence for late Bronze Age/ early Iron Age pitting (AAE 8); Iron Age settlement/agricultural activity (AAE 2 and AAE 7), Roman settlement/religious activity (AAE 2 and AAE 5), Roman (or later) field systems (AAE 1 and AAE 3). A putative Roman road may be encountered in AAE 10 and/or AAE 3 and a post- medieval moat was revealed in AAE 4. Two areas containing a colluvial layer with struck flints (AAE 6 and AAE 9) were also identified. Albion Archaeology A428 Caxton to Hardwick Improvement Scheme, Cambridgeshire Report on the Results of Archaeological Field Evaluation 28 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Table of Contents

List of Figures.....................................................................................................................................3 Preface.................................................................................................................................................4 Structure of this Report.....................................................................................................................4 Key Terms...........................................................................................................................................6 Non-Technical Summary...................................................................................................................7 1. INTRODUCTION...................................................................................... 8 1.1 Site Location and Description.............................................................................................9 1.2 Archaeological Background................................................................................................9 1.3 Methodologies.......................................................................................................................9 1.4 Professional standards.......................................................................................................10 2. AIMS AND METHOD STATEMENT ­ TRIAL TRENCHING AND OBSERVATION ............................................................................................ 11 2.1 Trial Trenching Methodology...........................................................................................11 2.2 Observation Methodology .................................................................................................11 3. RESULTS - TRIAL TRENCHING AND OBSERVATION....................... 13 3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................13 3.2 Trenches 1 to 12 and AAE 1..............................................................................................13 3.3 Trenches 13 to 15 ...............................................................................................................13 3.4 Trenches 16 to 30 and AAE 3............................................................................................14 3.5 Trenches 31 to 41 and AAE 4............................................................................................15 3.6 Trenches 43 to 52 and AAE 5............................................................................................15
4.12 Summary.............................................................................................................................27 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................... 28 6. APPENDICES ........................................................................................ 30 6.1 Appendix 1 ­ Trench Summaries .....................................................................................30 6.2 Appendix 2 ­ Artefact and Ecofact Summary...............................................................125 Table 2: Summary of the artefact assemblages identified during fieldwalking...............................126 Table 3: Artefact summary by AAE................................................................................................128 Table 4: AAE 5 - Copper alloy artefacts.........................................................................................131 Table 5: Pottery Type series...........................................................................................................134 Table 6: Summary of environmental samples .................................................................................134
3 12 Roman: Greyware 2 26 4 14 Roman: Micaceous ware 1 2 4 14 Modern: Flower pot 1 2 5 16 Roman: Greyware 1 9

Headings

Edmund Nuttall Capita - Symonds
3.9 Trenches 81 to 85 ...............................................................................................................17
Table 1: Areas of Archaeological Evidence....................................................................................21
4. SYNTHESIS........................................................................................... 22
4.1 Discussion ...........................................................................................................................22
Preface
Dan Hounsell (Archaeological Supervisor) and Adam Lee (Assistant Archaeological
Key Terms
Non-Technical Summary
1. INTRODUCTION
August
1.1 Site Location and Description
1.2 Archaeological Background
1.3 Methodologies
1.4 Professional standards
2. AIMS AND METHOD STATEMENT ­ TRIAL TRENCHING AND
OBSERVATION
2.1 Trial Trenching Methodology
2.2 Observation Methodology
2.2.1 Machine Stripping and Observation
3. RESULTS - TRIAL TRENCHING AND OBSERVATION
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Trenches 1 to 12 and AAE 1
3.3 Trenches 13 to 15
3.4 Trenches 16 to 30 and AAE 3
3.5 Trenches 31 to 41 and AAE 4
3.6 Trenches 43 to 52 and AAE 5
3.9 Trenches 81 to 85
4. SYNTHESIS
4.1 Discussion
4.2.1 Description of AAE
4.2.2 Potential of remains
4.3.1 Description of AAE
4.3.2 Potential of remains
4.4.1 Description of AAE
4.4.2 Potential of remains
4.5.1 Description of AAE
4.5.2 Potential of remains
4.6.1 Description of AAE
4.6.2 Potential of remains
4.7.1 Description of AAE
4.7.2 Potential of remains
4.8.1 Description of AAE
4.8.2 Potential of remains
4.9.1 Description of AAE
4.9.2 Potential of remains
4.10.1 Description of AAE
4.10.2 Potential of remains
4.11 AAE 10 - Land north-east of Bourn Airfield.
4.11.1 Description of AAE
4.11.2 Potential of remains
4.12 Summary
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
6. APPENDICES
6.1 Appendix 1 ­ Trench Summaries
6.2 Appendix 2 ­ Artefact and Ecofact Summary
6.2.1 Fieldwalking
6.2.1.1 Introduction
4 14 Flake 1 18
8 19 Flake 1 8
8 19 Flake 1 5
Pottery
1 2 Modern: Teapot lid 1 11
6 17 Modern: Creamware (C18-19) 1 8
8 19 Roman: Greyware 1 7
8 19 Modern: Transfer-printed ware (C19) 1 1
Glass
3 12 Post-medieval vessel glass 1 36
8 19 Modern bottle glass 1 13
6.2.2 Trial trenching
6.2.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2.2 AAE 1
6.2.2.3 AAE 2
6.2.2.4 AAE 3
6.2.2.5 AAE 4
Pottery
6.2.2.6 AAE 5
Pottery
6.2.2.7 AAE 6
6.2.2.8 AAE 7
Pottery
6.2.2.9 AAE 8
Pottery
Flint
6.2.2.10 AAE 9
Flint
6.2.2.11 Other Areas
Pottery
6.2.2.12 Environmental samples
15 Road Corridor
Field
22 Field 23
Modern Feature
Archaeological Feature
Archaeological Feature
Archaeological Feature
Modern Feature
Modern Feature
Layer
Modern Feature
Archaeological Feature
Modern Feature
Archaeological Feature
Archaeological Feature
Furrow
Archaeological Feature
Layer
Furrow
Modern Feature
Archaeological Feature
Layer
Furrow
Archaeological Feature
Archaeological Feature
Layer
Furrow
Palaeochannel
0.9 Ha
3.7 Ha
1.45 Ha
0.76 Ha
1.8 Ha
0.9 Ha
0.5 Ha

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